We find two different types of fibers or threads, i.e., natural and artificial. Natural fibers do not have uniform thickness. Artificial fibers have uniform thickness. Natural fiber is obtained from plat and animals. Artificial fibers are prepared from chemicals. Natural fibers bear less weight. Where as artificial fibers bear more weight. Artificial fibers are stronger than natural threads. Natural fibers snap easily where as artificial do not snap at the time of weaving.
The cotton fibers appear like ribbons which are twisted.
The wool scales are seen on the woolen threads. As they are elastic, the threads retain their original length after stretching.
The silk threads look like narrow tubes having pits at random. Usually on silk clothes, dust particles do not settle down.
Terylene- all the above maintained characteristics of artificial fibers apply to Terylene.
Through spinning, short fibers can be made long by joining each other. The threads now formed are tough and strong. Let us see how spinning is done by various devices.
Takli- a thin iron rod fixed to a disc of iron with a notch at the upper end is called takli. The fibers get twisted and are spun into a tread when the takli turns around.
Charaka- it is also known as the spinning wheel. The thread is spun on the charkha, after it is spun on the takli. The left hand is used for holding the liever. Where as the right hand is used to turn the wheel. The thread now in the form of spindles is woven into cloth in the looms.
Ambar charkha: it is the arrangement of 2-3 charkhas which can be used in spinning thread fast.
Making of yarn by machines- in modern times, machines are used from picking of cotton bolls in the fields to the manufacture of cloth. Using machine saves time and labour. Dhotis, Sarees and lungi are woven by hand loom weavers by using yarn made in mills.
Wool: it is used usually in winters in the form of sweaters and mufflers. It dose not allow the heat to escape from our body.
Wool of best quality is obtained from merino sheep. The hair growing on the skin is used in making wool. The process of cutting wool from sheep is called shearing.
Silk was originated in china. Silk is obtained from the larva of the silk worm. Rearing of silk worms for silk is known as sericulture. The larva of the silk moths is known as silk worm. Eggs are laid by the moth which hatches to give silkworms. The worm feeds itself on the mulberry leaves. Then it secretes a liquid from its mouth and starts spinning its body around to from a case of the secretion, which is known as cocoon. The secretion from its mouth is hardened into threads of silk on exposure to the air.
The cocoon is nothing but the case of silk thread.
The coons are now placed in hot water and the tip of the thread is found by scrapping it. On the reels which are made cut of wooden frames, the tips of 3-5 cocoon threads are joined and are wound. The process of drawing and winding silk fiber is known as reeling.